They also significantly blunted gene expression levels of iNOS, cytokines/interleukins (IL-1α, IL-6) and chemokines including CCL5/RANTES and CXCL10/IP-10 [62]. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, also known as red sage or Danshen (Chinese Pinyin name), is a perennial plant (Fig. ​1A1A) in the genus Salvia of the mint family, Lamiaceae [1]. Miltiorrhiza was well described in classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) works such as in the Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao Gangmu, Ming dynasty, 1596 AD). Miltiorrhiza is characterized as a common drug for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis.

Possible medical uses

So far, there are several drugs contained Danshen as its major component which have been developed and marketed in China for the treatment of CVD, including Fufang Danshen tablets, Compound Danshen dripping pills, Danhong injection and Tongxinluo capsule, etc. From 2000 till now, we have identified 39 clinical trials comprised a total of 2431 patients where S. Miltiorrhiza was used alone or in combination with other herbs to treat CVD. In the prescriptions of 39 clinical trials, Compound Danshen dripping pills was the most popular one (22 in 39, 56.4%), and offered potential benefits for patients with chronic heart diseases. Among 22 trials with Compound Danshen dripping pills, 9 trials used the Compound Danshen dripping pills alone to treat CVD, and 13 trials used combination treatment.

Physical Effects of Salvia Divinorum

Eventually, a 5-8 minute “plateau” will occur, during which the effects no longer increase in severity. There are several stages to salvia use, each of which varies in length and intensity. After ingesting salvia (whether through smoking, eating, injecting, or drinking it), it takes about seconds for the drug to begin taking effect. After this period has passed, a 1- to 2-minute period of “coming up” begins. According to the Center For Substance Use Research, the first known historical mention of salvia was by historian Jean B. Johnson in 1938 in use by a tribe called the Mazatecs that drank salvia tea to induce visions.

5. Chronic Mix of Salvia Supplemention Did Not Impact Hippocampic Neurogenesis

In vitro and animal studies have confirmed that several Salvia species contain a large array of active compounds that may enhance cognitive activity and protect against neurodegenerative disease. In this review, the active constituents in plants belonging to the genus Salvia are summarised, and their influence on pharmacodynamics pertinent to cognitive activity are detailed. In particular, the effects of plants belonging to the genus Salvia and their constituents on cognitive skills including memory, attention and learning are detailed. Their potential effects in dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, are also examined. Completed human trials are summarised, and factors influencing the potency of Salvia plants are covered. Finally, directions for future research are proposed to enhance our understanding of the potential health benefits of Salvia plants.

Effects and potential mechanism of SM and its effective ingredients on osteoporosis (OP)

Other fMRI studies of volunteers high on better known psychedelics like LSD and psilocybin, the psychoactive molecule in mushrooms, have also shown decreases in coupling among the areas involved in this network. It’s as if the musicians in the orchestra stop following a central conductor and each start keeping time with separate metronomes. Some researchers think that the decreased activity between these network connections is part of the essence of what makes psychedelic drugs so psychedelic. The point was to allow the researchers to watch my brain and those of the 11 other volunteers in the study on salvia.

The methanol eluate fraction of the water extract treatment inhibited hyperplasia of non-cardiomyocyte [147]. In a rat carotid artery balloon injury model, magnesium lithospermate B treatment (10 mg/kg/day for 28 days, i.p) prevented neointimal formation [68]. Wan et al studied the effect of the lipophilic fraction (tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone) of S. Miltiorrhiza roots on isolated porcine coronary arteries induced by U46619 (a thromboxane A analogue). The results demonstrated that the lipophilic fraction at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL induced complete relaxation in porcine coronary artery [110]. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects still warrant further investigation.

The quick nature of its effects as well as its legality fool them into thinking there is no danger. Sadly, this isn’t the case and an increasing number of young people are falling victim to the hidden dangers of salvia and the ways in which it can stimulate psychotic episodes. This rate will vary based on a person’s height and weight (heavier and taller people usually have shorter trips), as well as their experience with salvia.

Miltiorrhiza could downregulate the levels of Nox4, ROS, NF-κB, MMPs, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, IL-6, CRP, CD40, and LOX1, which contributes to inhibition of atherosclerosis. Miltiorrhiza suppresses P38MAPK/JNK/ERK pathway, and activates Na+-K+-ATPase, Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase, substance use amphetamines HIF1α and VEGFA, which facilitates improvement of CVD. Miltiorrhiza upregulates TRPC1/TRPC6/Ca2+, MMP-2/TIMP-2, NO and NOS expression, and inhibits Ang II, TNF-α/P38/NF-κB/MCP1 pathways, which contribute to the inhibition of hypertension.

  1. A comprehensive addiction treatment program can address issues of polydrug use as well as co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders.
  2. Those with psychedelic experiences may accidentally die by suicide from falling from a building, drowning, or simply stepping into the road.
  3. Overall, all administered Salvia species were well tolerated, with only minor adverse events reported.

However, the effects of salvia usually last for less than 30 minutes. The time it takes to feel the effects and the durationthat they last depend on the method of use. Effects of other hallucinogens lsd what to know include flashbacks to drug experiences, visual impairment and a condition called hallucinogen persisting perception disorder. However, it’s unclear if salvia causes similar long-term effects.

Even worse is the fact that salvia is actually more potent than many illegal hallucinogens. This is a major problem, because KOR agonists actually contribute to a variety of mental health problems, particularly those centered around perception. For example, people with schizophrenia often suffer from KOR agonists in their mind, as do those with Alzheimer’s.

Salvia is a herb from the mint family and can cause brief, intense psychedelic experiences.2 Salvinorin A is the active ingredient in salvia divinorum, which has a long history of use by Indigenous shamans in Mexico. Effects and mechanism of Salvia miltiorrhiza and its active ingredients on fracture healing. Effects and mechanism of Salvia miltiorrhiza and its active ingredients on rheumatoid arthritis. Effects and mechanism of Salvia miltiorrhiza and its active ingredients on osteoporosis. This review summarizes the effects and molecular mechanisms of SM and its active ingredients on MSD. The aim of this review is to provide evidence for the future application of SM in the prevention and treatment of MSD (Figure 2).

The discrimination of novelty versus familiarity was based on the various environmental cues that the mouse can perceive from each arm of the Y-maze. In the first trial of the test (acquisition), one arm was closed with a door and mice were allowed to freely visit the two other arms for 5 min. After a 30-min intertrial interval (ITI), mice were again placed in the ‘start’ arm for the second trial (retrieval) and allowed free access to all three arms for 5 min. ‘Start’ and closed arms were randomly assigned to each mouse. The animals were video tracked (SMART system; Bioseb, Vitrolles, France) to analyze the time spent in the different arms.

Widespread salvia use is relatively new, and, as a result, there is limited information on the duration of its high, which can be variable. How long a salvia high affects you depends on how it is ingested and at what dose. For example, smoking salvia typically lasts 15–20 minutes, while placing drops under the tongue can last butalbital acetaminophen caffeine oral for up to two hours. When taken recreationally, a component of salvia called Salvinorin A activates kappa-opioid receptors. These receptors are also activated when opioids are taken and are responsible for dissociative effects with both substances. Salvia use can result in hallucinations, visual disturbances and dizziness.

In addition to the short-term effects of Saliva, there are several possible long-term consequences of Salvia use that those who repeatedly take the substance would do well to guard against. One potential long-term impact of Salvia use is dysphoria, a condition which is the opposite of euphoria. While euphoria is a joyous and excited state of mood, dysphoria is an unhappy and unpleasant state. The exact mechanism by which Salvia might lead to dysphoria is not yet known. Salvia is a plant that can function as a Dissociative Hallucinogen. While there is no evidence that the effects of Salvia cause dependence or overdose, the physical and psychological effects of Salvia can be distressing for some users.

Proportion of the collected studies (38) related to Salvia miltiorrhiza and its active ingredients in the treatment of different types of MSD. Summary of commercial drugs of Salvia miltiorrhiza and its active ingredients. Overall, evidence for the cognitive-enhancing and protective effects of Salvia plants is promising.

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